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MyScott95
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PostSubject: Recieved some bad news   August 28th 2013, 12:02 pm

My sister called yesterday to let me know our Sister-in-Law is now is the hospital Hospice under heavy pain meds. I don't usually share this personal stuff but thought this was an important issue to share for us up in age and for those with older parents and grandparents.
She had an epidural about 3+ months ago they say is the source of this infection that started in her spine, she has been in terrible pain since where it hurt to be touched. She has been transferred from a nursing home to the hospital many times since, put on high dose antibiotics but the infection has finally won. An infection I was not aware existed so not sure how many others are aware of it. It escalated to gangrene in her foot  and they wanted to remove the foot. My niece made the hardest decision probably of her life and has decided to let her go since there were other issues with heart over the years and the suffering she has endured. She is 76, too young but as a family we support the decision. Here's is info about this bacteria... be aware and share is my belief.
 
 
 
C-diff infection.
 
 
Combating Clostridium Difficile
 
By Jessica Girdwain
Aging Well
Vol. 5 No. 1 P. 18
 
Patients of advanced age with antibiotic exposure, GI surgery, long institutional stays, or serious underlying illness are at increased risk of acquiring this bacterial infection.
 
To call Clostridium difficile (C diff), a disease that primarily threatens older patients in hospitals and elder care facilities, a thorn in the side of healthcare workers would be an understatement. The virulent bacterial infection that causes severe diarrhea is quick to spread and difficult to remove from hospital environments, and its incidence has exploded in the last decade. In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it has caused more deaths in the United States than all other intestinal infections combined.
 
While those infected are often only mildly sick, C diff can advance to a point where it “irreversibly damages the colon,” says William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD, a professor of internal medicine and pathology and the associate director of microbiology at the School of Medicine at the University of Virginia. In severe cases, C diff may cause sepsis, multiorgan failure, intestinal perforation, or death.
 
It’s a disease that traditionally affects adults over the age of 65, perhaps due to a weakened immune system. “What’s at least a possibility is that they don’t develop a good immune response to the C diff toxins so they’re more prone to get infected in the first place. Add to that the fact that they can’t develop a good immune response, and they’re more likely to experience a recurrence of the infection,” says Stuart Cohen, MD, coauthor of “Clinical Practice Guidelines for Clostridium difficile Infection in Adults” published in the May 2010 issue of Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.
 
Additionally, older adults are more likely to suffer from other medical illnesses, such as heart disease and emphysema so once they get an infection like C diff, it’s more likely to become severe, and “an elderly person doesn’t respond as well to aggressive infections, making outcomes worse,” says Cohen.
 
Origin of the Infection
C diff infection (CDI) may not always point to antibiotics as the culprit, according to recent research. Results of the study “Predictors of Hospitalization in Community-Acquired Clostridium difficile Infection,” presented in October at the American College of Gastroenterology’s annual scientific meeting, notes that other undefined causes of the infection may exist and could predict a patient’s likelihood of requiring hospitalization.
 
Another study conducted by Winthrop-University Hospital in Mineola, New York, “An ‘On-Admission’ Prediction Model of Disease Severity in Clostridium difficile Infection,” suggests that clinicians pay particular attention to patients at the time of CDI diagnosis because the nursing home residence factor apparently serves as a significant predictor of outcomes.
 
In addition to the confined living quarters and daily group activities among nursing home residents, this population is more likely to be taking antibiotics, increasing the likelihood of contracting a more severe strain of the disease, according to researchers.
 
Skyrocketing Rates
The veritable explosion of CDI is staggering: Between 1996 and 2009, C diff rates for hospitalized people over the age of 65 increased 200%, according to the latest data from the CDC. As age increased, so did the risk of infection.
 
Several theories have emerged to explain what’s responsible for the uptick. One is the overuse of antibiotics, including fluoroquinolones. “C diff flourishes where other bacteria get killed, so antibiotics we use on infections, like community-acquired pneumonia, kill normal gut flora. C diff comes in and is then able to grow like crab grass,” says Rebekah Moehring, MD, an infectious disease fellow at Duke University School of Medicine in Durham, N.C.
 
“The biggest risk factor for your patients acquiring C diff is antibiotic use—and judicious use is critical. One thing I often hear about in long term elder care facilities is that when a resident’s urine looks cloudy, the first thing that happens is a doctor prescribes antibiotics before evaluating if it’s truly an infection,” Cohen says. He notes that the prudent use of antibiotics is something physicians should be aware of in efforts to control C diff rates. Such efforts are among the reasons many hospitals are instituting antibiotic stewardship programs led by infectious disease physicians to help doctors more appropriately use antibiotics.
 
Another factor responsible for the increase is a new strain of the bacteria that has rapidly emerged in the last decade, as noted by the CDC. In 2004, NAP1 was discovered and linked to several hospital outbreaks. Known to be more virulent than other strains, it produces more exotoxins along with an additional toxin called a binary toxin. “This new strain produces 10 times the toxins than previous strains,” says Petri. When it causes sickness, these cases are more severe, creating a greater number of complications, according to Petri.
 
Treatment of this strain is often more difficult, as it is resistant to fluoroquinolones, says Moehring.
 
She says more CDI cases are being reported simply because doctors are aware of the condition and looking for it. The increased awareness, which is good, increases the likelihood that doctors will properly identify the symptoms and quickly test and confirm the diagnosis.
 
“We also think that improved testing identifies more cases, and this may also contribute to the increase in C diff,” notes Moehring.
 
An Ounce of Prevention    
Preventing CDI is often more basic than healthcare workers might imagine, and many effective procedures stem from logical solutions. “We have precautions set in place because they make sense, though no studies tell us how helpful they are. The research in prevention of C diff is, unfortunately, just not very good,” says John Bartlett, MD, a professor of medicine and infectious diseases at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Regardless, the following are wise precautionary steps to take:
 
• Healthcare providers should wear gowns and gloves to create a barrier between the worker and the environment and prevent transmission from practitioners to other patients via hands or other parts of the body.
 
• Promptly identify patients with C diff. Patients will exhibit clinical symptoms (watery diarrhea, fever, nausea, abdominal pain or tenderness, loss of appetite) and test positive for the C diff organism or its toxin.
 
• Place patients with C diff in private rooms or isolate them with other patients with C diff infections. However, “The time needed to keep the patients separated hasn’t been definitively answered. It’s important to know that even when the patient is starting to feel better, we can still detect C diff in stools,” says Moehring. It’s best to wait until a patient is discharged from the hospital or, in the event a patient is spending an extended time period in the hospital, doctors should wait until he or she has completed treatment and is symptom free, although “it’s a different situation for every patient,” Moehring says.
 
• Wash hands with soap and water before and after interacting with each patient. Avoid alcohol-based solutions, as these don’t readily kill C diff spores.
 
• Disinfect hospital rooms properly. As a spore-forming organism, C diff can remain on surfaces, such as bed rails or counters, for an extended period of time. “It doesn’t die and just sits there for days and days,” says Moehring. These spores are also resistant to a lot of antiseptics and hospital-grade disinfectants, making them a challenge to remove. The solution: Bleach is best, Moehring says. (Researchers are working to develop a better way to clean hospital rooms. For example, Duke University School of Medicine is set to begin testing on a promising new way to disinfect rooms using an ultraviolet light device.)
 
CDI Diagnosis
Bartlett says if a patient tests positive for CDI, the most important thing for physicians to do is carefully scrutinize the test they’re using. “There’s a fair amount of new testing that’s pretty complicated, and you have to know what type of results you’re looking at,” he says. Because these tests are different in terms of what results they show and their sensitivity, doctors must be in tune with the laboratory to be able to analyze the results accurately. One such test that’s appeared in the last five years, called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), identifies actual DNA from C diff vs. looking for toxins in a stool test. It’s more sensitive, so it is less likely to turn up a false-negative.
 
Of the 40 hospitals affiliated with the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network, about seven or eight use PCR testing, says Moehring. “While it takes more lab expertise, it does perform better, and I suspect more facilities will start to move toward using it,” she says.
 
Before testing even begins, Cohen says doctors should be on alert for patients who are highly suspect for contracting the infection. “If an older patient is seriously ill with diarrhea, you have to treat them before you receive the results. The sooner you do that, the more likely you’ll get a good outcome,” he says. Additionally, many patients show an atypical presentation of CDI. In some, Cohen notes, they may have an ileus. “Many times, doctors should consider C diff even if their patient does not get diarrhea.”
 
Treatment Options
Most patients with CDI can be successfully treated with antibiotics; metronidazole or vancomycin is commonly prescribed. A new antibiotic called fidaxomicin has recently been approved by the FDA to treat CDI. One piece of information to note about the drug, Petri says, is that it offers lower rates of relapse (which are typically around 10% to 20%), though this claim is not yet FDA approved.
 
A 2011 study published in The New England Journal of Medicine compared fidaxomicin with vancomycin. Patients received 200 mg of fidaxomicin or 125 mg of vanomycin orally for 10 days. While both antibiotics cured patients with equal efficacy, those on fidaxomicin experienced a significantly lower recurrence rate (15.4%) than those on vanomycin (25.3%).
 
Although fidaxomicin is certainly promising, Moehring says she doesn’t expect the drug to take over as the primary form of treatment any time soon. “It’s very expensive right now. Since the research has shown that it’s equivalent in terms of efficacy in the first occurrence, it might make a good choice for patients with recurring infections,” she says. “We’ll need to see more data, and they’ll have to make it more practical to use in terms of price in order to see widespread use.”
 
While antibiotics may be a first-line treatment, many CDI cases are recurring and may require additional procedures. One such option, fecal transplant, takes stool from a healthy donor and replaces the colon’s contents in patients with C diff. However, the procedure is appropriate primarily for treating relapse. “About 250 cases have been reported, and the procedure is almost universally successful,” notes Bartlett. It’s an important procedure with which physicians should become familiar because patients often come into the office asking about these transplants after doing Internet research, he says.
 
Recent studies presented at the American College of Gastroenterology’s annual meeting attest to fecal transplant’s effectiveness. One study conducted at the Digestive Health Center at Integris Baptist Medical Center in Oklahoma City found that symptoms of C diff were resolved in 98% of patients who underwent the procedure.
 
But doctors should make patients aware that a fecal transplant is appropriate only when the standard method for treating relapse fails, he notes. The number of clinicians performing the procedure is limited so Bartlett recommends healthcare practitioners know where in their area it’s available.
 
A new surgical procedure is bringing hope to the 10% of severely sick patients who, because of CDI, require a total colectomy. In a recent study published in Annals of Surgery, the authors performed an ileostomy in 42 patients and compared the results with 42 patients who had previously undergone a colectomy. Of the ileostomy group, eight patients died compared with 21 in the colectomy group. Though researchers say that randomized trials are needed to confirm their results, Bartlett says the surgery is an exciting advancement. “The good news about the procedure is that it allows the patient to keep their colon,” he says.
 
The Future for CDI
A vaccine to prevent C diff has already reached phase 2/early phase 3 trials. The vaccine would be appropriate only for at-risk patients, namely elders who are hospitalized and taking antibiotics, according to Bartlett. In the future, patients who have an anticipated hospital stay, such as for elective surgery, and who will be exposed to antibiotics will become good candidates for the vaccine. Also, patients who are immunosuppressed but still respond to vaccines may consider it, too. “We’re still awaiting results on the vaccine but do know that it will be effective,” says Bartlett.
 
Regardless, experts continue to advance the field to prevent future hospital outbreaks. “The series of new drugs and strategies coming down the pipeline are set to change the whole field of C diff in five years,” says Cohen.
 
One area on which infectious disease specialists are keeping a close eye is the transfer of CDI into the community. “People are getting C diff who had no exposure to healthcare facilities or hospitals. It’s concerning for everyone because the infection is getting out,” says Moehring. In addition, doctors remain unaware of how it is traveling into the community, though future research will determine where it’s coming from and how to contain this dangerous infection.
 
— Jessica Girdwain is a Chicago-based freelance writer who has contributed health-related articles to several national magazines.
 
 
 
Antacids May Increase CDI
The use of antacids is associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) complications and mortality, according to a recent study in Clinical Infectious Diseases. Researchers reviewed 485 cases of patients at the Naval Medical Center in San Diego and discovered that “14% of patients who had been receiving acid-suppression therapy and were receiving treatment for CDI had further complications, compared with those not receiving acid suppression.” These increased odds of disease severity and mortality were especially prominent in people over the age of 80. The researchers suggest doctors discontinue unnecessary use of acid-suppressing medication in their patients after CDI diagnosis or upon suspicion of the infection.
 
— Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases
 
 
 
C Diff Lengthens Hospital Stays
Hospitalized patients who are infected with Clostridium difficile (C diff), the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in hospitals, will remain hospitalized about six days longer on average, a new study indicates. Experts say prevention is key to controlling the spread of the bacterial infection.
 
For the study, published December 5 in CMAJ, researchers analyzed information on nearly 137,000 hospital admissions in Ottawa, Canada, over the course of seven years. Of those admissions, 1,393 patients became infected with C diff and spent 34 days in the hospital compared with just eight days for those who did not have the infection.
 
However, patients with C diff generally had more serious illnesses, which the researchers took into account. They then calculated that acquiring the infection actually lengthened hospital stays by an average of six days.
 
“We believe our study provides the most accurate measure yet of the impact of hospital-acquired C difficile on length of hospital stay,” study author Alan Forster, a senior scientist at the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute and an associate professor at the University of Ottawa, said in a press release about the study. He noted that new tools to collect hospital data and provide more accurate information are boosting infection-prevention efforts.
 
— Source: CMAJ

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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 28th 2013, 2:36 pm

I am so sorry about your sil. My gf mother has been battling c diff for a year. Nothing seems to work. I will keep you all in my prayers. Hugs!
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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 28th 2013, 5:03 pm

So sad. Sorry for all your family is going through. Thanks for the info.

Can I also make people more aware of shingles. This reminded me of that so much. Two aunts have had it in the last year and it is very painful. One is in her 80's and the other in her 70's. It has taken them 6 months to a year to feel better.

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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 28th 2013, 6:12 pm

Sorry for your S-I-L Shirley. I lost my cousin at 70yrs. old two yrs. ago to C diff. His daughter (40yrs. old) has it now from caring for him. She can not take any antibiotics when she's sick, which is the crazy part because when you have an outbreak, antibiotics is exactly what they put you on.
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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 28th 2013, 9:01 pm


Gut Biota Never Recover from Antibiotics: Damages Future Generations


Posted on:
Wednesday, June 5th 2013 at 5:00 am


Written By:
Heidi Stevenson



The misuse of antibiotics is not only causing new, never-before known diseases like E. coli and MRSA, the flesh-eating bacteria, it's also destroying the gut biome with devastating effects on our ability to deal with infections and destroying our ability to absorb nutrients from food.

Gut Biota Never Recover from Antibiotics: Damages Future Generations

by Heidi Stevenson, originally published on Gaia Health.

Emerging research shows that the harmful effects of antibiotics go much further than the development of drug resistant diseases. The beneficial bacteria lost to antibiotics, along with disease-inducing bacteria, do not fully recover. Worse, flora lost by a mother is also lost to her babies. The missing beneficial gut bacteria are likely a major factor behind much of the chronic disease experienced today. The continuous use of antibiotics is resulting in each generation experiencing worse health than their parents.

Martin Blaser, the author of a report in the prestigious journal Nature writes:



Antibiotics kill the bacteria we do want, as well as those we don't. These long-term changes to the beneficial bacteria within people's bodies may even increase our susceptibility to infections and disease.Overuse of antibiotics could be fuelling the dramatic increase in conditions such as obesity, type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies and asthma, which have more than doubled in many populations.

Without even considering the development of superbugs, we're now seeing clear documentation that the overall long term effects of antibiotics are devastatingly harmful to our health. Speaking to ABC News, Blaser said:


Antibiotics are miraculous. They've changed health and medicine over the last 70 years. But when doctors prescribe antibiotics, it is based on the belief that there are no long-term effects. We've seen evidence that suggests antibiotics may permanently change the beneficial bacteria that we're carrying. [Emphasis my own.]

Notice that term, permanent. Without factoring in the potential risks in the casual use of antibiotics, it now looks like conventional medicine is creating several pandemics of some of the worst chronic diseases known.

Mass Use of Antibiotics

By the time a child reaches age 18 in the industrialized world, the chances are he or she has been given 10-20 courses of antibiotics. That misuse continues into adulthood, and they're casually prescribed to pregnant women.

That's where the situation grows ever worse. Part of normal childbirth is a baby's passage through the birth canal—where it's exposed to its first dose of beneficial bacteria. (This should give pause to anyone considering a caesarian birth that isn't absolutely necessary.)

When a mother's microbiota is deficient, her child is born to that deficiency. The evidence now appears to show that, once a probiotic deficiency exists, it is never recovered—and it's passed down the generations. Therefore, each generation is likely to suffer from poorer health than the parents enjoyed.

Costs of Antibiotic-Induced Chronic Conditions

Healthcare costs rise and rise in treating this chronic ill health. Consider the pandemic status of diabetes and asthma in children today. Those diseases were extremely rare 50 years ago, and now they're literally routine. Yet, the focus continues to be on treatment—which increasingly lines the pockets of Big Pharma and doctors.

The search for cause has practically been ignored, even in the face of rising rates of chronic illness. Instead, treatment is the touchstone. Ever more toxic methods of suppressing symptoms, while hiding adverse effects, are researched and pushed on conventional medicine's victims.

Two of the most critical functions in health are drastically compromised in enormous numbers of today's children. The ability to metabolize food and the ability to breathe are being stolen from this generation. Yet the treatment they're receiving for this poor health does nothing to make them well. It only masks the symptoms and makes their children even sicker!

On top of those losses, children suffer from allergies, their bodies' inability to distinguish between disease-inducing agents and harmless substances. They suffer from autoimmune disorders, their bodies' inability to distinguish between foreign substances and parts of their own bodies.

Has there ever been a generation of children whose inherent health has been so devastated by the very medical system that is supposedly responsible for their health?

Iatrogenic Disease

Iatrogenic disorders are health problems caused by medical errors. They are now officially the third-leading cause of death in the United States. But those numbers do not include early deaths from diabetes, asthma, allergies, chronic bowel disorders, or cancer—all of which have been documented as results of antibiotic use—nor are the miseries suffered by the people burdened with them reckoned in the iatrogenic toll.

Related Research on GreenMedInfo.com: Antibiotics

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Resources
•Antibiotics: Killing Off Beneficial Bacteria ... for Good?
•Overuse of Antibiotics May Cause Long-Term Harm
•Superbug risk to children given too many antibiotics, killing bacteria that fight disease
•Incomplete recovery and individualized responses of the human distal gut microbiota to repeated antibiotic perturbation
•Short-Term Antibiotic Treatment Has Differing Long-Term Impacts on the Human Throat and Gut Microbiome
•Long-Term Persistence of Resistant Enterococcus Species after Antibiotics To Eradicate Helicobacter pylori


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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 29th 2013, 1:30 pm

Received the word this morning, she died last night. I've been digesting it, going over 50+ years of good memories. I'm glad though she is no longer suffering and in pain and thankful her daughter had the courage to let her go.

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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 29th 2013, 1:34 pm

I'm so sorry Shirley. Loss and grief are the prices we pay for loving.
Stay strong.
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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 29th 2013, 2:05 pm

I am very sorry for your loss.
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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 29th 2013, 4:58 pm

So sorry for your loss, myscott

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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 29th 2013, 5:41 pm

sorry for your loss
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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 29th 2013, 7:03 pm

MyScott95 wrote:
Received the word this morning, she died last night. I've been digesting it, going over 50+ years of good memories. I'm glad though she is no longer suffering and in pain and thankful her daughter had the courage to let her go.
I'm so very sorry this horrible infection took hold of your SIL, MyScott and how brave of her daughter to make such a heartwrenching decision. I admit that I've never heard of this before - how truly, truly awful and scary it is!! Thank you for taking the time to educate us about it and what it does to a large part of our beloved population.

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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 29th 2013, 9:36 pm

So sorry to hear this Shirley, my thoughts and prayers are with you and your family!

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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 29th 2013, 10:59 pm

Thank you all, so many emotions right now. She will be missed. Thank you again, Shirley

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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   August 29th 2013, 11:29 pm

Very sorry for your loss Sad

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PostSubject: Re: Recieved some bad news   September 2nd 2013, 2:56 pm

Probably good for all diarrhea, my sister (70 yrs old)went through 37 days of diarrhea and loose stools the beginning of this year they could find no cause of but finally got under control, my son is going through something similar now for the last month they are trying to find the source of. None of them have been in contact with each other either. Knowledge is Power...
ETA...Water Kefir is good too, propagate it and eat the grains if you don't care for the drink. I like it with Vanilla, taste's like cream soda but as the grains multiplied I just ate them for the probiotics


Foods For Healing After C Diff Treatment
By Diana Dyer, MS, RD
Many nutrition professionals who work in hospitals and long term care facilities are aware of the prevalence and dangers of Clostridium difficile (C diff), a virulent bacterial infection that causes severe diarrhea. While there are new developments under way to help prevent the spread of this infection among healthcare workers and the community, the question is how can dietitians counsel patients to help them during the healing process?

Recently, a physician instructed a patient who was treated for a severe case of C diff to begin eating soft foods once discharged from the hospital. But the patient didn’t know where to begin. Here’s the advice I gave her about the foods she should eat vs. those to avoid to assist her on her path to recovery—strategies you can apply when counseling patients.

Introduce Friendly Bacteria
Foods that contain probiotics will help repopulate the gut with good bacteria and reduce the risk of regrowth of C diff. Probiotic bacteria are found in yogurt and other fermented foods. Make sure the brand patients purchase contains live cultures when consumed; for example, Stonyfield Farm brand contains six different species of live bacteria. Sauerkraut, tempeh (fermented soybeans), and miso (fermented soybean paste) are other foods that contain probiotics.

I recommend patients purchase a product called Culturelle, an over-the-counter probiotic supplement. My family and I have used this brand prophylactically when we’ve needed antibiotics. Culturelle has been shown in research studies to repopulate the gut with friendly bacteria.1

Try Soluble/Fermentable Fiber
Eating a soft foods diet usually means avoiding nuts, seeds, foods high in fiber, and gas-producing fare in favor of items that are easy to chew. However, few research studies show which diet is most effective when recovering from C diff. Some animal studies have shown that diets high in soluble/fermentable fiber help eliminate the C diff infection sooner than diets high in insoluble fiber.2-4 Foods high in soluble/fermentable fiber include oats and oat bran, oatmeal, beans, peas, rice bran, barley, citrus fruits, strawberries, and apple pulp. Foods high in insoluble fiber include whole wheat breads, wheat cereals, wheat bran, rye, rice, cabbage, beets, carrots, Brussels sprouts, turnips, cauliflower, and apple skin.

Since bananas are known to help control diarrhea, I suggest patients buy a product called Banatrol Plus, which have been found to control diarrhea because they add pectin and soluble fiber to the diet. Patients can order this product from their local pharmacy.

— Diana Dyer, MS, RD, is a former critical care specialist turned cancer and nutrition specialist and full-time farmer (http://www.cancerrd.com/). She’s a frequently requested speaker and author of A Dietitian’s Cancer Story.



References
1. Gorbach SL, Chang TW, Goldin B. Successful treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Lancet. 1987;2(8574):1519.

2. Ward PB, Young GP. Dynamics of Clostridium difficile infection. Control using diet. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;412:63-75.

3. May T, Mackie RI, Fahey GC Jr, Cremin JC, Garleb KA. Effect of fiber source on short-chain fatty acid production and on the growth and toxin production by Clostridium difficile. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1994;29(10):916-922.

4. Frankel WL, Choi DM, Zhang W, et al. Soy fiber delays disease onset and prolongs survival in experimental Clostridium difficile ileocecitis. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1994;18(1):55-61.



Resource for Patients
Patients who want to learn more about Clostridium difficile can visit www.cdc.gov/HAI/organisms/cdiff/Cdiff_infect.html, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare-Associated Infections’ web page.

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